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Ashot Vorobyov
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Download Study Material Of Resonance



With a solid track record spanning over four decades, the Journal of Magnetic Resonance is known for introducing high-quality, breakthrough articles. These have been seminal to the current state-of-the-art achieved by NMR, ESR, MRI and NQR, and it is a tradition we aim to preserve and enlarge. The Journal's readership spans the full range of disciplines impacted by magnetic resonance, including experts interested in magnetic resonance within the context of physics, engineering, materials sciences, chemistry, biophysics, structural biology, in vivo biochemistry, biology, preclinical analyses, and human imaging. Emphasis is placed on expanding the basic principles and techniques underlying this branch of spectroscopy, as well as on state-of-the-art applications of novel MR experiments to all the research areas of interest to our constituency. Manuscripts that only make routine use of well-established techniques or minor spectroscopic contributions, are not appropriate for the Journal.




Download Study Material Of Resonance



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Patients about to undergo MRI study, should inform radiologists and MRI technologists if and whether breast-feeding at the time of MRI procedure scheduling, in case gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent is required for the evaluation. If this situation arose, patients may pump and save breast milk before the study. Patients may resume breast-feeding about 24-48 hours following the injection gadolinium-based contrast material. Patients who are breast-feeding should request for additional information from the radiologists regarding this issue.


MR Imaging study produced a complex reaction between mobile hydrogen protons in biologic tissues, a main, static magnetic field (static field), and excitation energy in the form of radiowaves (Rf) of a specific frequency introduced by transmitting coils positioned next to the human body areas of interest. Images from areas of interest are produced by computer processing of resonance data received from protons in the body's field of view. The field strength of the main, static magnet is directly related to signal-to-noise ratio (SN/R) of the images acquired; the higher the field strength, the higher the signal-to-noise ratio. While 1.5-T static, main magnets are now the standard high-field MRI units, 3.0-T static, main magnets are now widely used and have distinct advantages in the musculoskeletal systems and brain because of higher signal-to-noise ratio and increased soft tissue differentiation.


Mitochondrial myopathies (MM) are a heterogeneous group of inherited conditions resulting from a primary defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain with consecutively impaired cellular energy metabolism. Small sized studies using mainly electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography have revealed cardiac abnormalities ranging from conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias to hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy in these patients. Recently, characteristic patterns of cardiac involvement were documented by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO)/Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). The present study aimed to characterize the prevalence and pattern of cardiac abnormalities and to test the additional diagnostic value of CMR in this patient population. The hypothesis that different neuromuscular MM syndromes present with different cardiac disease phenotypes was evaluated.


  • Information of MRI testing of medical implants, materials, and devices performed by Magnetic Resonance Safety Testing Services. Testing procedures are in accordance with the guidelines from The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International.More Info

Biomedical LecturesDr. Shellock is regularly invited to lecture at national and international scientific and medical conferences and meetings. He is available to lecture on several magnetic resonance safety topics:


When reporting a study that involved human participants, their data or biological material, authors should include a statement that confirms that the study was approved (or granted exemption) by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) and certify that the study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that an independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. If a study was granted exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the reasons for the exemption).


The following study materials and resources are suggested by experienced R.T.s to help you prepare for the magnetic resonance imaging certification exam offered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists.


MRC is devoted to the rapid publication of papers which are concerned with the development of magnetic resonance techniques, or in which the application of such techniques plays a pivotal part. Contributions from scientists working in all areas of NMR, ESR and NQR are invited, and papers describing applications in all branches of chemistry, structural biology and materials chemistry are published.


The advantages of using multifrequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance(EPR) in studying carbon-based materials are discussed. The details of designingcontinuous-wave EPR spectrometers operating at different frequencies are presented.Designs of CW and pulse Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR)spectrometers, which are very important techniques for studying precisely hyperfineinteractions and local environment of paramagnetic ions in carbon-based materials areincluded. Analysis of EPR spectra, spin Hamiltonians, EPR lineshapes, evaluation ofspin-Hamiltonian parameters, and simulation of single-crystal and powder spectra arealso explained. A short review of carbon-based materials studied by EPR is given.


The usefulness of electron spins in quantum information technologies suchas spintronics or quantum computation is determined by the spin-lattice (T1) and spinspin(T2) relaxation times. These relaxation times should be long relative to thecharacteristic times required for spin control in order to allow for controlledinformation manipulation. Despite the central importance of T1 and T2 in moderninformation technologies, direct experimental access to these quantities is scarce.Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is one of the few-experimental methods,offering direct access to both T1 and T2 of electrons. In this chapter, we present recentadvancements in pulsed and continuous wave ESR spectroscopy of conducting carbonnanomaterials that have emerged with the potential for practical applications.


The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful andsensitive method to detect intrinsic and extrinsic paramagnetic point defects in amaterial system. EPR has recently been proven an effective tool for studying the latticedefect of nanostructured carbon materials. In particular, EPR can be used to elucidatethe spin properties, including unpaired spins, conduction electrons, and dangling bondsas well as the electronic states of different carbon nanostructures. EPR studies onpoint-defects of carbon materials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes help tounearth several electronic and optical features of the materials. Though the magneticfeature of graphene has been studied intensively, EPR research on graphene andgraphene-like structures is still a new field. This chapter focuses on discussing EPRinvestigations on graphene oxide, functional reduced graphene oxide, and carbonnanotubes. In that, EPR has demonstrated as a suitable tool to detect spin densitychanges in different functionalized nanocarbon materials. A novel approach to studyingthe charge transfer within quantum dots-graphene hybrids, using continuous waveEPR, will be discussed. It also enables the study of the change in the electronicproperties of graphene before and after attaching of quantum dots. This contributes toimproved understanding of electronic coupling effects in nanocarbon-nanoparticlehybrid materials which are promising for various electronic and optoelectronicapplications.


The two-temperature measurement method has found use in electronparamagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for determining the fraction of two kindsof paramagnetic species of different nature. The method can particularly be appliedwhen the temperature dependence of EPR line intensity shows deviations from theCurie law. By applying this method it was possible to determine the fractions ofparamagnetic centres responsible for the Curie- and the Pauli-like paramagnetism incarbon-based materials. The method has also found application when the origin of theEPR line was originated due to paramagnetic centres in spin doublet states (S = 1/2)and in excited spin triplet states (S = 1).


Spin properties of defects in carbon nanostructures are one of thefundamental directions in the physics of nanomaterials. The problem of dopingnanostructures and creating intrinsic and extrinsic defects in such structures as a resultof various actions (heat treatment, ionizing radiation, chemical action, etc.) is playingthe central role in the further implementation of these nanostructures in real devices.Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is known to be one of the most informativemethods to study the intrinsic and extrinsic defects at the molecular level. The use ofdifferent frequency bands (low frequency X-band or high frequency W-band) anddifferent regimes of the EPR signal detection (continuous or pulsed) allows one to getan access not only to the identification an electronic and microscopic structure of thedefects in the crystalline matrix, but also to study coherence properties of the defects'spin. In this chapter, by means of EPR, we provide the direct observation ofparamagnetic impurities in the crystalline core of nanodiamonds and we also show thatnitrogen impurities in nanodiamonds interact with the diamond lattice in a similar wayas in the bulk diamond crystals. We also present the results of observation of highdensityNV defect ensembles created directly by high-pressure high-temperature(HPHT) sintering procedure of the detonation nanodiamonds and show that the spinensemble of the NV defects is characterized by the long spin-lattice and spin-spinrelaxation times. The latter is important for bioimaging and quantum sensingapplications.


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